What Caused the Afghan Society to be Destroyed, Victimized and Devastated today?!
By: Abdul Ali Faiq
First of all I would like to express my gratitude to the brave Afghaniastanis who endured and tried to resist years of oppression and adversaries. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who has helped me directly or indirectly in this project in bringing to light some important facts and information to the world. The population of world needs to understand and realize the roots of the problems which our people faced for decades. Eventually, I hope this piece of work will have some sort of positive impact on our readers.
The causes which fundamentally destroyed our beautiful country are as following:
History of Afghanistan is full of degradation and atrocities such as: vicious assassinations, lootings, tyrannies, discriminations, gunlordism, barbarism, tribalism and extremism. Such acts describe the identity, heritage and culture of an Afghan. Of course there are other ethnicities in Afghanistan such as: Tajik, Uzbek, Hazara, Noristani, Baloch, etc. These ethnicities have their own historical glories, great civilizations and cultures which consisted of great literature, poets, and scholars. We should not mix gunlordism (topaksalar) with culture (farhangsalar)!
We strongly believe that a tribal society is a big threat to modern civil society as well as to democratic process. Tribal societies hinder modernity, enlightenment and the advancement of technology. This is due to the fact that those that continue to uphold a tribal society believe that modernization is against their traditional tribal policy. The leader of a tribe is seen as the “godfather” of his people; the khan of Qabila is the Holy Messenger of God and the baba of Qabila is the King of Heaven. The leader is given complete power; he can decide on anything, perform any act he wishes, and, most importantly, he can persecute whoever he wants, whenever he wants and wherever he wants. The women in tribal society are viewed as guilty creatures. Women are robbed of any kind of power and prestige and are denied access to many important as well as common things such as health care, education, any type of social activities and events, libraries, etc. The woman’s role in the tribal society is that of a slave for Khan Qabila (godfather of tribal); she must cook, care for the children, clean the house, and be subjected to beatings by Khan Qabila. It might sound unbelievable but this is, in fact, the reality of the women in tribal societies! It is hard to imagine just how well this sort of system would function in this world. Would good could one expect from this system? Therefore, would it not be better to be the United States of Afghanistan (USA)?
Palwasha Kakar has more information on the women of tribal society. She has a well-written article titled “Tribal Law of Pashtunwali and Women's Legislative Authority” where she explores the nature and savagery of the tribal phenomenon. How does this ill-system function with the Pashtuwali code? She states:
“The role of women in Pashtunwali is little studied and even less understood. Much has been written about the oppression of women in Afghanistan, and it is often attributed to Pashtun tribal practices, such as male elders having say over marriages of young women; high bride prices, walwar, given to the father of the bride and suggesting the sale of women into marriages; honor killings of women for sexual misconduct. Among the large Pashtun landowner (zamindar) class and among the city-dwelling Pashtuns, the seclusion of women is prevalent and the chaderi or boghra are worn when the woman leaves the confines of her household compound. Women are constrained by the Pashtunwali code in so many ways that it is difficult to understand why they participate in this system, or why, when women’s rights reforms are discussed, they resist them, even those associated with health care and education. Even though there are at present few traditional practices of Pashtunwali that were able to withstand the influence of pervading religio-political ideologies, due to war, drought, and displacement, it is critical for the reconstruction of Afghanistan to understand the “ideal” Pashtunwali in the minds of Pashtun men and women, who may no longer be living in their Pashtun majority communities but yearn to return to a peaceful and “ideal” past.
“……..There is a full spectrum of variance on where the boundaries lie between men’s and women’s space. On one end are the Kuchi nomads, where women do not veil in public and are often left to care for the household while the men are out shepherding the flocks for days and weeks the young unmarried women of the family. In the middle of the spectrum are the nang groups.When a male guest comes, he often sits separately with the men, especially separate from who are semi-pastoral and semi-agriculturist, changing with the seasons. Women partially cover their faces when they leave the house or out of respect for elders. They visit within the neighborhood, but men and women have separate visiting quarters. Still, a male family friend might visit with the married women and female heads of the household. On the extreme opposite end are the qalang groups, where only elderly women and female children are allowed to leave the household compound without being completely veiled, especially among the large landowning classes of Khans…..
“The negative impact of extreme purdah can lead, however, to women being barred from education and health care. Purdah prevents women from going on journeys alone. Gender boundaries tend to be much stricter when families live mostly among strangers rather than relatives, as those who moved to the cities do.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> This can be observed most acutely in refugee camps for the internally displaced as well as refugee camps in Pakistan and Iran, where women who do not usually wear a boghra in their village will wear it in the refugee setting.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]>
“While it is commonly believed that the boghra came from India, the concept of purdah was a much more widespread phenomenon of the cultures that surrounded and conquered Afghanistan. Byzantine, Greek, and Persian societies maintained similar boundaries, especially in their urban settings.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> One such example, similar to Pashtunwali’s gender boundaries, is the classical Greek period in Athens, where free women were “secluded” and only men who were related to them could visit them. However, “some women were even too modest to be seen by men who were relatives, and for a strange man to intrude upon a free woman in the house of another man was tantamount to a criminal act.”<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> Urban and qalang practices of Pashtunwali could have been influenced by the cultures in their region that had urbanized and become agriculturalist before the Pashtuns.”<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> (A)
This is the Pashtonwali code that prevails among the tribal societies. Now, the question is how can this ill-fated system possibly operate its out-dated, nomadic ways with non-Pashtons? It is impossible for this lacking system to bring peace, stability and prosperity to Afghanistan and its people. It can not even provide for its own needy, measeable, landless Kochi. The Kingdom of Qabila is expanded day by day, but the ordinary Kochi (nomads) is dying from starvation and misery. Millions of Kochis are suffering due to the lack of modernity, global Enlightenment and technology because Khan Qabila had forbade such advancements
In his analytic article titled “Baba-ocracy,” Soraab, a young, well-educated researcher has illustrated the role of Khan Qabila or baba of Qabila. He writes:
“The tribes all have a "leader" that they call their baba. This baba is the judge, jury, and executioner. He is the person who enforces the customary tribal rules and decisions for the tribe—no matter how unjust or unfair it might be. And once this baba makes a decision everyone in the tribe must follow it and abide by it—no matter what. For example, the Taliban knew all they had to do was gain support from the baba of the tribes and once that baba joined the Taliban, the whole tribe joined as well. In America there is the saying "One person, one vote." This does not apply to the tribes. There, it is more like "One person, all the votes." The baba’s vote is the vote of everyone else. Once the baba has ruled on something it is impossible for him or anyone else to go back on it. For example, music was outlawed by the Taliban and the baba brought that outlawing rule into their tribes and now no one is allowed to listen to any type of music. In order for the baba himself to undo the ruling he must admit that he was either wrong in the first place or that he has changed his mind. This is usually unheard of because of their stubbornness.
“The baba and the tribes consider themselves above any law that isn't a part of their customary ways. This means that they will and have refused to follow the laws and constitution of Afghanistan. Just like the US, it is mandatory for both boys and girls to go to school up to a certain age in Afghanistan. However, the Afghanistan South will not allow any of their females to attend school or go anywhere outside of their home. They insist that the only education anyone needs is the way of the tribes and they will burn down any school that the government tries to build for them. They also believe that a female has only a certain number of uses and therefore they marry them off at the age of 12, disregarding her mental and emotional state as well as disregarding the age of the man she marries and his marital status. Polygamy and marriage deals are a common part of their tribal society.” (B)
It is very clear that Afghanistan was damaged throughout its history because of this tribal and nomadic system. Now, the young generation adamantly want to root out the tribal system because it is bringing about the ruination of the country.
(2) The negative impact of British colonization:
The second virus-like matter which penetrated Afghanistan and caused severe and lasting damage was the colonisation.
The British Empire consisted of various territories conquered and colonized all over the world from about the year 1600. Most of these territories are now independent or ruled by other powers. The British Empire was at its largest at the end of World War I, having control of over 23% of the world’s population and area. The Commonwealth is composed of former and remaining territories of the British Empire. The British Empire lasted more than three and a half centuries-almost as long as the Roman Empire.
Afghanistan became a new factor in the imperial scene when it was united under Dost Mohammed, who in 1837 took the formal title of Amir. Since the time of Peter the Great in the early 18th century, Russia has been interested in developing a direct trading link with India. This meant the need for a friendly and/or puppet regime in Afghanistan. But the idea of Russian influence in the region (the only neighbouring territory with easy access to Britain's Indian empire) inevitably rang alarm bells in London. Dost Mohammed found himself courted by both sides. A British mission came to Kabul in 1837 and while discussions were under way, a Russian envoy also arrived and was received by the Amir.
Abdurrahman was followed on the throne by three generations of his family. He set a pattern, which they followed, of an authoritarian regime dedicated to the introduction of technology and investment from more developed countries - though the violence and anarchy of Afghan life often frustrate such modernizing intentions. Abdurrahman was succeeded in 1901 by his son Habibullah Khan, who successfully maintained a policy of strict neutrality during World War I. After the war he demands international recognition of Afghanistan's full independence. This claim prompted Britain's third ineffectual intervention in Afghan affairs, though it is Habibullah's son Amanullah Khan who had to deal with the crisis after his father’s assassination in 1919.
A month of fighting between British and Afghan forces was inconclusive and rapidly led to a treaty signed in Rawalpindi on August 1919 in which Britain acknowledged Afghanistan's independence as a nation. With this much achieved, Amanullah accelerated a programme of reform on European lines. But in doing so he alienated the old guard. Amanullah was forced into exile during an outbreak of civil war in 1929.
The British immediately broke off negotiations and were ordered to leave Kabul. The response of the governor-general of India, Lord Auckland, was forceful but, in the event, extremely unwise. He used the rebuff as a pretext for an invasion of Afghanistan in 1838, with the intention of restoring a ruler from the Durrani dynasty who have shown that they are more malleable. This is the first of three occasions on which the British attempt to impose their political will on Afghanistan. All three attempts prove disastrous.
Two Anglo-Afghan Wars: AD 1838-1842 and 1878-81
In December 1838 a British army
assembled in India for an Afghan campaign. By April 1839, after a difficult
advance under constant harassment from tribal guerrillas, the city of Kandahar
is captured. Here Britain's chosen puppet ruler, Shah Shuja, is crowned inside a
mosque. Four months later, Kabul is taken and Shah Shuja is crowned again. While
researching in British library, several things in the resources caught my eye:
Rulers of Afghanistan (destroyers of Khorasan!)
Ahmad Shah 1747-73 (dies). Timur Shah, son of Ahmad Shah 1773-93 (dies). Zeman Shah, son of Timur Shah 1793-1800 (deposed). Mahmud Shah, brother of Zeman Shah 1800-03 (deposed). Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk, brother of Mahmud Shah 1803-09 (deposed). Mahmud Shah 1809-17 (loses Kabul and Kandahar).
Mahmud Shah, Saddozai 1817-29, (assassinated). Kamran, son of Mahmud Shah 1829-41 (assassinated?). Yar Muhammad, Alikozai (former Vizier) 1841-51 (dies). Saiyid Muhammad Khan, son of Yar Muhammad 1851-55 (deposed). Muhammad Yusuf Khan, Saddozai, 1855 (deposed). Sirtalp Isa Khan, Herati, 1855. Herat conquered by Persians, 1856. Sultan Ahmad Khan, Sultan Jan. Nephew of Dost Muhammad Khan of Kabul 1857-63 (overthrown). Dost Muhammad Khan 1863 (dies?).
Muhammad Azim Khan, Payendah Khel Muhammadzai 1817-22 (dies). Habibullah Khan, son of Muhammad Azim Khan 1822-26 (deposed). Dost Muhammad Khan, uncle of Habibullah Khan 1826-39 (deposed). Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk, Saddozai 1839-41 (deposed). Zeman Khan, Barakzai 1841-42 assassinated (?).Fath Jang, Saddozai (contender) 1842 (?).Dost Muhammad Khan 1842-63 (dies)?
Pur Dil Khan with his brothers Kohan Dil Khan, Rahim Dil Khan, Payendah Khel Muhammadzai 1817-39 (deposed). Shah Shuja-ul Mulk 1839-41 (deposed). Kohan Dil Khan, brother of Pur Dil Khan 1842-55 (dies). Dost Muhammad Khan 1855-63 (dies).
Sher Ali Khan, son of Dost Muhammad Khan 1863-66 (deposed). Muhammad Afzal Khan, brother of Sher Ali Khan 1866-67 (dies). Muhammad Azim Khan, brother of Muhammad Afzal Khan 1867-68 (deposed). Sher Ali Khan 1868-79 (dies). Yakub Khan, son of Sher Ali Khan 1879 (abdicates).
Abdur Rahman Khan, son of Muhammad Afzal Khan 1880-1901 (dies). Habibullah Khan, son of Abdur Rahman Khan 1901-19 (assassinated). Amanullan Khan, son of Habibullah Khan 1919-29 (abdicates). Inayatullah Khan, brother of Amanullah Khan 1929. Three days only (abdicates). Habibullah Ghazi, Bacha-i-Saqqao, a Tajik bandit (look at this silly word) 1929 Jan-Oct (deposed and executed). Nadir Shah, of the Musahiban family 1929-33 (assassinated). Zahir Shah 1933-73 (deposed); power was held by the successive Prime Ministers, his uncles Hashim Khan 1933-46, Shah Mahmud 1946-53. (H)
Conclusively, I reviewed the result and see the negative impact of colonization in Afghan society. And found that Afghanistani citizens (Tajik, Uzbek, Hazara, Noristani, Baloch) - was monitored and controlled by one pack of Qabila members. You can see clearly that phrase above: “Rulers of Afghanistan”- From Ahmad Shah Durrani, first ruler of the Saddozai dynasty, 1747-73 to Karzai in 2006. Afghanistan can be likened to a car accident victim or a hunted bird because it’s always been victimized. This is the reality of our history; the negative impacts of tribal and various Khans still affect our social life today. (C)
(2)Russia Colonization (invasion) Period
The Russian colonization/invasion had similarity to British one. Russia penetrated Afghanistan with a huge army and incalculable equipment, ammunitions, etc.
In April 1978, after Daud launched a crackdown against the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan PDPA, the leftist military officers overthrew him. PDPA leader Noor Muhammad Taraki became prime minister, subsequently assuming the title of President as well. Taraki and his deputy prime minister, Hafizullah Amin, both members of the Khalq faction, purged many Parcham leaders. Taraki announced a sweeping revolutionary program, including land reform, the emancipation of women, and a campaign against illiteracy. In late 1978 Islamic traditionalists and ethnic leaders who objected to rapid social change began an armed revolt against the government. By the summer of 1979 the rebels controlled much of the Afghan countryside. In September, Taraki was deposed and then killed. Amin, his successor, tried vigorously to suppress the rebellion and resisted Soviet efforts which tried to moderate his policies. The government’s position deteriorated, however, and on December 25, 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan. They quickly won control of Kābul and other important centers. The Soviets executed Amin on December 27 and installed Babrak Karmal, leader of PDPA’s Parcham faction, as president. Karmal, whom the Soviets considered to be more susceptible to their control, denounced Amin’s repressive policies, which reportedly included mass arrests and torture of prisoners, and promised to combine social and economic reform with respect for Islam and for Afghan traditions. But the government, dependent on Soviet military forces to bolster it, was widely unpopular.
Nevertheless, resistance to the Communist government and the Soviet invaders grew spontaneously throughout Afghanistan so that by the mid-1980s about 90 areas in the country were commanded by guerrilla leaders. The guerrillas called themselves Mujahideen (Muslim holy warriors). They had gained prominence through their fighting prowess rather than through the customary routes within traditional social structures. The resistance was roughly organized into seven major mujahideen parties, largely of Sunni background, based in Peshāwar, Pakistan, in the 1980s. Other mujahideen parties were based in Iran. The mujahideen were sustained by weapons and money from the United States, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and China. By the mid-1980s the United States was spending hundreds of millions of dollars each year to aid Afghan rebels based in Pakistan.
During the 1980s, Soviet forces increasingly suffered the impact of the fighting. By 1986 about 118,000 Soviet troops and 50,000 Afghan government troops were facing perhaps 130,000 mujahideen guerrillas. Although the Soviet troops used modern equipment, including tanks and bombers, the mujahideen were also well armed, and they had local support and operated more effectively in familiar mountainous terrain. In 1986 the United States began supplying the mujahideen with Stinger missiles able to shoot down Soviet armored helicopters.
The effects of the war on Afghanistan were devastating. Half of the population was displaced inside the country, and those not killed or wounded were forced to seek refuge outside the country. About 3 million war refugees fled to Pakistan and about 1.5 million fled to Iran. Estimates of combat fatalities range between 700,000 and 1.3 million people. With the school system largely destroyed, industrialization severely restricted, and large irrigation projects badly damaged, the economy of the country was crippled. Despite some negative reaction, the presence of so many refugees in neighbouring Pakistan and Iran actually improved Afghan relations with those countries. In addition, many of the refugees improved their lives considerably by leaving Afghanistan and the dangers of war therein. Because the majority of the refugees were religious, their fellow Muslims in Iran and Pakistan accepted them, even while the Iranian and Pakistani governments were striving to bring about the fall of the Communist regime in Kābul.
In May 1986, Karmal was replaced as PDPA leader by Mohammad Najibullah, a member of the Parcham faction who had headed the Afghan secret police. In November 1987 Najibullah was elected president. Subsequently he was hanged by savage regime of Taliban in Kabul in 1996. When Mikhail Gorbachev became the Soviet leader in 1985, he gave high priority to getting Soviet troops out of the costly, unpopular, and apparently unwinnable war in Afghanistan. In May 1988 Afghanistan, Pakistan, the USSR, and the United States signed agreements providing for an end to foreign intervention in Afghanistan, and the USSR began withdrawing its forces. The the Soviet withdrawal was completed in February 1989. (D)
Conclusively, the Russia invasion created an unforgettable disaster in Afghanistani society. Countless numbers of innocent people were murdered, millions of homes were destroyed, thousands of our women were raped, abused and killed. The people of Afghanistan became the new Diaspora of that time because of the invasion. That was the bitterness of colonization that our people had to pay.
After the back draw of the Russian army, the real Western civilization game started which sent Afghanistan spirally further into hell. While defeating the Russians, it seemed that the entire world was helping Afghanistan, much to the country’s surprise. However, once the Russian Empire collapsed, the Western civilization/International community immediately lost interest and dropped us, allowing the fanatics leftover from the war take over and take control over the disarrayed country. This is why the American tragedy of 9/11 occurred, and why the world has lost its balance of peace and harmony.
(3)The Triangle colonization (Pakistan, Taliban and Saudi Arabia)
I am sometimes very surprised and shocked at western people, who seem to lack information about other cultures, political environment, social life, etc. This is why the governments of these people abuse them in a different manner and make them slaves to the media and news agencies. For example, the majority of people know Osama bin Laden is a terrorist but they don’t know where this terrorising idea and philosophy came from?
Blood sucker Osama and barbaric Taliban Regime:
Osama bin Laden, a Saudi multimillionaire, was active in the guerrilla war against Soviet occupation forces in Afghanistan during the 1980s. After his return to Afghanistan in 1996, he directed an international terrorist network, al-Qaeda that trained Islamic fundamentalists to carry out terrorist attacks against the United States. Osama bin Laden was not a military individual but United States of America made him a wise and best military commander of chive in Russian Colonization period in Afghanistan. He was trained and well equipped by USA, ISI and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia against the Russian occupation in Holy war (Jihad) in Afghanistan. He was supported and encouraged by CIA, masterminded by ISI(Inter-Service Intelligence ) and funded by Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as a hero and Mujaheed (struggler)…When the Russian collapsed in Afghanistan and back draw in 1988 then the USA virtually closed its eyes and turned away, losing control and balance of the region. The terrorist military which ISI, CIA and KSA trained as a “child” will only realize the faults of the American Policy once he is “grown up.” If you read more about USA foreign policy you will find innumerable similar mistakes across the world where the USA invested a huge amount of money and diplomatic support to one person and one Qabila (tribal). This is not an effective policy.
In 1998, after terrorist bombings struck U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, the United States launched cruise missiles at alleged terrorist training camps in eastern Afghanistan. The camps were reportedly connected to an international terrorist ring allegedly run by Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi Arabian expatriate named by U.S. officials as the mastermind behind the embassy bombings. Bin Laden was active in the Afghan resistance to Soviet occupation forces during the 1980s, and toward the end of that war he established al-Qaeda (Arabic for “the Base”), an organization based in Afghanistan that, according to U.S. officials, connects and coordinates fundamentalist Islamic terrorist groups around the world. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban regime, with its special forces called the Arab Brigade, fighting alongside Taliban troops in the civil war against the Northern Alliance.
Assassination of Ahmad Shah Massoud a Great Lost:
On September 9, 2001, pro-Taliban suicide bombers assassinated Ahmad Shah Massoud, the leader of the Northern Alliance. Two days later in the United States, terrorists hijacked passenger airplanes and deliberately crashed them into the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, killing thousands of people. The U.S. government identified bin Laden as the prime suspect behind the attacks. Mullah Muhammad Omar, the supreme leader of the Taliban, refused U.S. demands that the Taliban surrender bin Laden. The U.S. government built an international antiterrorism coalition, securing the approval of many nations for a war on terrorism. American and British forces began aerial bombings of al-Qaeda camps and Taliban military positions on October 7. The Northern Alliance, meanwhile, continued its front-line offensive north of Kābul and other strategic areas. Many Afghans fled to refugee camps in border areas of Pakistan and Iran to escape the bombings, adding to the millions of Afghans already displaced from more than two decades of war.
While the United States and Britain continued the aerial bombardment in November, Northern Alliance forces captured several strategic cities, including Kābul. In late November hundreds of U.S. marines landed near Kandahār in the first major infusion of American ground troops into Afghanistan. The Taliban surrendered Kandahār, their last remaining stronghold, by December 10. The U.S.-led offensive then focused on routing out al-Qaeda forces holed up in the rugged Tora Bora cave region of eastern Afghanistan, near the border with Pakistan. In March 2002 U.S. troops undertook a mission, known as Operation Anaconda, to clear Taliban and al-Qaeda forces from the Shah-i-Kot Valley, in the vicinity of Gardēz in eastern Afghanistan. Meanwhile, the whereabouts of bin Laden remained unknown. (E)
North Alliance Commander Ahamad Shah Massoud fought more than 10 years against the terrorists and extremists. Washington hardly gave him any help and they did not heed his warnings. Massoud insisted time and again that the Taliban were an extreme threat not only to Afghanistan but to the world but his warnings were ignored. Ahmad Shah Massoud was a world class leader and an excellent commander. The man was loved and respected by his people. On September 9th, 2001, Commander Massoud was injured in a suicide bombing carried out by two Arab terrorists posing as journalists. After a few days lying in a coma, on September 14th, 2001, at age 48, dear Massoud reached martyrdom. Massoud was a patriotic citizen who gave his life for the cause of peace and democracy
Warning letter of Ahmad Shah Massoud to US government:
For more details I would like to give our readers evidence which Ahamad Shah Massoud sent to the government of United States Of America in 8th October 1998 and warned them against helping the Taliban. However, the USA continued with their wrong policy and followed the path of Pakistani government and its Inter- Service Intelligence (ISI). The following is the Massage of Ahamad Sha Massoud to the USA:
“I have spent the past 20 years, most of my youth and adult life, alongside my compatriots, at the service of the Afghan nation, fighting an uphill battle to preserve our freedom, independence, right to self-determination and dignity. Afghans fought for God and country, sometime alone, at other times with the support of the international community. Against all odds, we, meaning the free world and Afghans, halted and checkmated Soviet expansionism a decade ago. But the embattled people of my country did not savour the fruits of victory. Instead they were thrust in a whirlwind of foreign intrigue, deception, great-gamesmanship and internal strife. Our country and our noble people were brutalized, the victims of misplaced greed, hegemonic designs and ignorance. We Afghans erred too. Our shortcomings were as a result of political innocence, inexperience, vulnerability, victimization, bickering and inflated egos. But by no means does this justify what some of our so-called Cold War allies did to undermine this just victory and unleash their diabolical plans to destroy and subjugate Afghanistan.
“Today, the world clearly sees and feels the results of such misguided and evil deeds. South-Central Asia is in turmoil, some countries on the brink of war. Illegal drug production, terrorist activities and planning are on the rise. Ethnic and religiously-motivated mass murders and forced displacements are taking place, and the most basic human and women’s rights are shamelessly violated. The country has gradually been occupied by fanatics, extremists, terrorists, mercenaries, drug Mafias and professional murderers. One faction, the Taliban, which by no means rightly represents Islam, Afghanistan or our centuries-old cultural heritage, has with direct foreign assistance exacerbated this explosive situation. They are unyielding and unwilling to talk or reach a compromise with any other Afghan side.
“Unfortunately, this dark accomplishment could not have materialized without the direct support and involvement of influential governmental and non-governmental circles in Pakistan. Aside from receiving military logistics, fuel and arms from Pakistan, our intelligence reports indicate that more than 28,000 Pakistani citizens, including paramilitary personnel and military advisers are part of the Taliban occupation forces in various parts of Afghanistan. We currently hold more than 500 Pakistani citizens including military personnel in our POW camps. Three major concerns - namely terrorism, drugs and human rights - originate from Taliban-held areas but are instigated from Pakistan, thus forming the inter-connecting angles of an evil triangle. For many Afghans, regardless of ethnicity or religion, Afghanistan, for the second time in one decade, is once again an occupied country.
“Let me correct a few fallacies that are propagated by Taliban backers and their lobbies around the world. This situation over the short and long-run, even in case of total control by the Taliban, will not be to anyone’s interest. It will not result in stability, peace and prosperity in the region. The people of Afghanistan will not accept such a repressive regime. Regional countries will never feel secure and safe. Resistance will not end in Afghanistan, but will take on a new national dimension, encompassing all Afghan ethnic and social strata.
“The goal is clear. Afghans want to regain their right to self-determination through a democratic or traditional mechanism acceptable to our people. No one group, faction or individual has the right to dictate or impose its will by force or proxy on others. But first, the obstacles have to be overcome, the war has to end, just peace established and a transitional administration set up to move us toward a representative government.
“We are willing to move toward this noble goal. We consider this as part of our duty to defend humanity against the scourge of intolerance, violence and fanaticism. But the international community and the democracies of the world should not waste any valuable time, and instead play their critical role to assist in any way possible the valiant people of Afghanistan overcome the obstacles that exist on the path to freedom, peace, stability and prosperity. Effective pressure should be exerted on those countries that stand against the aspirations of the people of Afghanistan. I urge you to engage in constructive and substantive discussions with our representatives and all Afghans who can and want to be part of a broad consensus for peace and freedom for Afghanistan.”
How did Ahmed Shah Massoud become the Lion of Panjshir? What events in his life caused this man to become one of the greatest military strategists and most charismatic leaders of the second half of the twentieth century? Why was he considered so dangerous that Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network felt the need to assassinate Massoud two days before the attack on the World Trade Center?
Massoud was a natural leader of men. He was clear sighted yet visionary. While at war, he prayed for peace. While in the midst of destruction, he dreamed of rebuilding. While his hope for Afghanistan was one of liberation and democracy for all people, he was realistic about politics, diplomacy, and cultural and religious influences .The invasion of the Soviet Union to support the collapsing Communist government in Afghanistan gave birth to a loose collection of Afghan freedom fighters. They became known around the world as the Mujahadin. Ahmed Shah Massoud soon established himself as one of the Mujahadin's most prominent commanders.
When he joined the Mujahidin around 1980, Ahmed Shah Massoud had no idea that the next twenty years - the rest of his life - would be involved in one war campaign after the other. When the Soviet Union finally left Afghanistan, factional fighting within the country lead to a civil war. The Taliban, financed and sponsored by Pakistan, went into Afghanistan with a promise of law and order. At first the war-weary citizens welcomed the Taliban and their promises of peace and control. It did not take long, however, for the enormity of the mistake to become known.
The Taliban inflicted on the people of Afghanistan a repressive version of extreme Islam. They denied the people all human rights, abolished music and song, closed schools and medical centers, and established the Ministry of Good and Evil to enforce their belief system on the entire country. Ahmed Shah Massoud and other mujahadin found this radical form of Islam impossible to accept. They formed an alliance and swore to free their land from this latest invading force.
"We consider this is our duty -- to defend humanity against the scourge of intolerance, violence, and fanaticism." -- Ahmed Shah Massoud
As time passed the Taliban, first supported by the Pakistani ISI, developed a close association with Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda terrorist organization. Well funded and with military support from those organizations, the Taliban took control of more and more areas of Afghanistan.
Commander Massoud suffered several setbacks. His appeals for help from the West fell on deaf ears. Although Massoud represented the UN recognized government of Afghanistan, few countries without a vested interest in controlling Afghan soil did anything to help the Mujahidin in their struggle. They were finally forced into the northeast corner of the country, the Panjshir Valley, and maintained control of between five to ten percent of the country. The United States and other countries that had armed and supplied their former allies in the war against the Soviet Union began to consider whether or not they should recognize the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan. (F)
On the sunny morning of September 11, 2001, 19 terrorists, working in teams of 4 or 5, hijacked four commercial jetliners and turned them toward targets chosen for destruction. Two of the planes, loaded with fuel and passengers, were flown at full speed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in the financial district of New York City. The buildings burst into flame and then collapsed, killing thousands. A third terrorist crew smashed their plane into the Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. military in Arlington, Virginia. The hijackers of the fourth airliner apparently intended to hit another target in the Washington, D.C., area, but passengers on the plane realized what was happening and fought back. This airplane crashed in a field in rural Pennsylvania. (K)
(4)Federalism a way for salvation:
Our war-torn country tested several political systems such as: baba-ism, imperialism (colonisim), communism, Islamism (of fundamentalist) Talibism, extremism and being tested by fascism of Qabila. We believe Afghanistan can survive by following federalism and should at least give it a try. Federalism, also referred to as federal government, is a national or international political system in which two levels of government control the same territory and citizens. The word federal comes from the Latin term fidere, meaning “to trust.” Countries with federal political systems have both a central government and governments based in smaller political units, usually called states, provinces, or territories. These smaller political units surrender some of their political power to the central government, relying on it to act for the common good. (I)
More than 25 countries across the world practice federalist system and they are doing well i.e. Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Spain, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United States of America.(J)
We, as young generation, want strongly, to root out the old ideas of extremism and want to crack down on the domination of one Qabila. We do not want our country to be sold again by one Qabila to foreigners. We mustn’t be deceived and mislead by Pakistani ISI, Afghan Malati figures, Karzai advisers, and other people that have their own agendas to carry out with Afghanistan and its people.
(D) Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopaedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
(E) Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopaedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
(F) Ahamd Shah Massoud Afghan National Hero
(H) Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopaedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
(I) Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved
(J) Handbook of Federal Countries: 2002, Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002.
<![if !supportFootnotes]> <![endif]> Barnett R. Rubin, Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System (New Haven: University of Yale Press, 1995), 24
<![if !supportFootnotes]> <![endif]> Anna Pont, Blind Chickens and Social Animals (Portland: Mercy Corps Printing, 2001), 31-32. See also Hanne Christensen, The Reconstructions of Afghanistan: A Chance for Rural Afghan Women (UNRISD Report 90.3, 1990), 35-38.
<![if !supportFootnotes]> <![endif]> Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), 25-37.
<![if !supportFootnotes]> <![endif]> To understand how urban cultures in Afghanistan have influenced each other, as well as how Pashtunwali influences the existing Afghan cultures that surround it, these influences need further research